VII International forum
“Marine Industry of Russia”
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«President-Hotel»
Department of affairs of the President of the Russian Federation

Moscow, 24, B.Yakimanka Str
24-25 May 2017
 
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More on port installations

The notion of “port” means a coastal territory and adjacent water area protected from rough water naturally or by means of port installations and designated for moorage, ship servicing, handling operations, etc.

Port Installations

Port installations can be classified as follows:

  • outer (protective)
    • breakwaters;
    • moles;
  • inner
    • berths (piers);
    • quays;
    • ship repair and ship lifting constructions (boathouses, docks, boatslides).

Port installations also comprise navigation signs located in the inner harbor waters and ligthhouses.

Moles and breakwaters are artificial constructions protecting harbor waters from rough water. Earlier, people constructed rock-fill breakwaters of natural small stone. Later, when they found out that this construction moves under water pressure towards banks or simply ruins, the fill of small stone began to cover with large boulders. Today, artificial stones of a regular form are used as construction material of modern moles which can be used as piers (berthing facilities).

Berths are constructions to be moored to and equipped with associated hardware. Berths can be loading, passenger, ship-repair, navy, etc. Besides, they can be fixed berths or mooring floats. The group of berths is called port waterfront or mooring line. Generally, quay mooring line and pier moorings can be separated.

Berths are constructed on special foundations (caissons and dredging wells), piles, and are made of artificial stones of a regular form. Berthing facilities can be of various profile: vertical, sloping or mixed. The majority of sea berths has vertical profile which can be explained by deep water while river berths have sloping or mixed profile. Berths can be made of reinforced concrete, metal, concrete and stone. When designing and constructing, nature of soil and hydrographic features of the water area define their construction. Existing mooring line is often becomes insufficient (for example, when number of putting in ships) and reconstruction is necessary to increase a number of mooring places.

Port floating facilities are a special type of constructions. These are not only mooring floats but other complex engineering installations for safe and convenient servicing of ships (floating docks, cranes, etc).

Design and Construction of Port Installations

Today, when interest in small water transport has grown, boat berths are constructed for easy moorage of boats, wave runners and small motor yachts. They can be fixed berths (with supports) and berthing floats (plastics or aluminum pontoons). They are equipped with make-fasts (bollards), rings, knights, cement dividers.

When designing port installations, a number of conditions is taken into account, so it is rather laborious and complicated task. Soil properties, flood tide streams, level of water, choppiness, water constitution (sea water is an aggressive media and the degree of its aggression depends on composition, additive agents, temperature, etc), possibility of laying of access roads and so on.

Construction of port installations is performed by licensed enterprises and in accordance with various standards and norms. In construction of river port installations, harbor structures for winter moorage are provided since very often inland navigation is seasonal. In case of absence of natural crawls, artificial ones are created and this raises the price of construction works.

A number of shipboard repair works are to be performed only in dry docks. Since construction of capital docks is expensive, there is a long-standing question on their adequate replacement with cheaper constructions. Today, the solution is pre-fabricated hangars over boatslides. Such hangar costs ten times cheaper and the quickness of construction gives priorities.

Situation in Russia

Russian institutes conduct research work for exact calculation of volume of earthworks in construction of ports and port installations using satellite survey instruments (SSI).

Welded groove (PShS and ShTS) and hot-rolled grooved profile L5-Uwere developed. Panels PShS and pipe groove ShTS ensured introduction of effective engineering and technical solutions in the course of construction of berths and other port installations (river and water body bank-protective walls, heading, lock side and dry docks walls, etc).

In some cases prompt soil freezing is necessary. So, Central Scientific Research Institute of Construction in collaboration with Nauka NPO created a technology of 3-D airy freezing by means of small-sized expansion turbines (ET).

 
 
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